Antineoplastic agents

Carboplatin Intravenous Infusion

Carboplatin Intravenous Infusion is an anti-cancer medicine in the form of a solution for infusion (a solution which can be given as a slow injection via a drip). Treatment with an anti-cancer medicine is sometimes called cancer chemotherapy.

Carmustine

Very slightly soluble in water; freely soluble in dehydrated alcohol; very soluble in dichloromethane. It melts at about 31° with decomposition.

Tamoxifen: Breast Cancer

Whether to take tamoxifen and undergo chemotherapy is among the decisions made by women with breast cancer. The benefits of these treatments outweigh the risks – in particular, the possibility of a stroke? This study compared the use of tamoxifen and chemotherapy in 179 women who had a stroke after they were diagnosed with breast cancer and in 353 survivors of breast cancer of the same age who did not have a stroke.

Antisense Oligonucleotides

No antisense oligonucleotides are on the market yet for cancer. Despite the compounds’ high specificity and low toxicity, this drug class has been plagued with disappointing results, such as those reported for ISIS-3521 (Isis Pharmaceuticals/Eli Lilly’s Affinitak) in non-small-cell lung cancer. Their appeal is further limited by the fact that they require long periods of intravenous administration.

Amsacrine

Amsacrine is incompatible with sodium chloride 0.9% injection and with other chloride-containing solutions, apparently because of the poor solubility of the hydrochloride salt in aqueous solution. Amsacrine reacts with certain plastics.

Busulfan

Very slightly soluble in water and in alcohol; freely soluble in acetone and in acetonitrile. Very slightly soluble in water; slightly soluble in alcohol; soluble 1 in 45 of acetone. The major adverse effect of busulfan with standard doses is bone-marrow depression, manifest as leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, and sometimes, anaemia.

Imuran Tablets (Azathioprine)

Imuran tablets contain a medicine called azathioprine. This belongs to a group of medicines called immunosuppressants.

Azacitidine

The adverse effects of azacitidine are generally similar to those seen with cytarabine. Hypokalaemia, dyspnoea, and bruising are common.

Fludarabine/Cyclophosphamide/Mitoxantrone (FCM)

Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent. These agents alkylate DNA bases, thereby producing “cross-links” that covalently link the two DNA strands and prevent cell replication. Mitoxantrone is a synthetic antineoplastic anthracenedione.

ERLOTINIB

Erlotinib is taken by mouth once a day at the same time every day, preferably in the morning. It should be taken with a large glass of water on an empty stomach, one hour before or two hours after food or other medications.

Capecitabine

A white to off-white crystalline powder. Sparingly soluble in water; soluble in alcohol and in acetonitrile; freely soluble in methyl alcohol.

Cytotoxic Agents

Chemotherapy uses anticancer or “cytotoxic” drugs to destroy cancer cells by disrupting their growth. Cytarabine is commonly used in combination with interferon-a and in chemotherapy regimens to treat blastic-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia. The cytotoxic agents hydroxyurea and busulfan were the treatments of choice until interferon-a was introduced into the chronic myelogenous leukemia market twenty years ago.

Allopurinol Tablets BP (Allopurinol)

The Tablets are only given to children with cancer especially leukaemia (cancer of the blood) and certain enzyme disorders (e.g. Do not take Allopurinol tablets if the above applies to you.

Torisel (Temsirolimus)

Torisel may also increase blood glucose levels and worsen diabetes mellitus. This may result in the need for insulin and/or oral antidiabetic agent therapy. Tell your doctor if you experience any excessive thirst or increased frequency and quantity of urination.

Alemtuzumab (Single Agent)

Early pilot studies indicated that alemtuzumab could cause tumor regression in advanced non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. However, subsequent studies showed that the therapeutic effect was confined mainly to tumor cells in the blood and bone marrow rather than in lymph nodes, a finding that paved the way for trials in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Patients who are refractory to fludarabine are left with few treatment options.

BLEOMYCIN

Injection: Your chemotherapy nurse will inject the medication into your bloodstream over a few minutes. You may be given a small test dose of Bleomycin on your first treatment day, to see how your body reacts to this medication.

Androcur (Cyproterone Acetate)

Androcur 50mg is a medicine containing cyproterone acetate. It is an anti-androgen therapy. It blocks the actions of male sex hormones (androgens) and reduces the amount of male sex hormones produced by the body.

Tobravisc (Tobramycin)

If you suffer from liver or kidney disease. Tell your doctor if you are taking any other antibiotic medicines by mouth or by injection.

Tyverb (Lapatinib)

Tyverb is used to treat certain types of breast cancer (HER2-overexpressing) which have spread beyond the original tumour {advanced or metastatic breast cancer). It may slow or stop cancer cells from growing, or may kill them. Information about these medicines is described in separate patient information leaflets.

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Etiology

No etiologic factors have been clearly defined for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, although few studies have been performed. Most chronic lymphocytic leukemia cases occur sporadically, but approximately 1 in 20 patients has a familial form of the disease. The presence of familial cases clearly suggests that inherited genetic factors contribute to the development of the disease, although the specific abnormal genes connected to chronic lymphocytic leukemia have not yet been identified.