Antineoplastic agents


Very slightly soluble in water; freely soluble in dehydrated alcohol; very soluble in dichloromethane. It melts at about 31° with decomposition.

Tamoxifen: Breast Cancer

Whether to take tamoxifen and undergo chemotherapy is among the decisions made by women with breast cancer. The benefits of these treatments outweigh the risks – in particular, the possibility of a stroke? This study compared the use of tamoxifen and chemotherapy in 179 women who had a stroke after they were diagnosed with breast cancer and in 353 survivors of breast cancer of the same age who did not have a stroke.


Amsacrine is incompatible with sodium chloride 0.9% injection and with other chloride-containing solutions, apparently because of the poor solubility of the hydrochloride salt in aqueous solution. Amsacrine reacts with certain plastics.


Very slightly soluble in water and in alcohol; freely soluble in acetone and in acetonitrile. Very slightly soluble in water; slightly soluble in alcohol; soluble 1 in 45 of acetone. The major adverse effect of busulfan with standard doses is bone-marrow depression, manifest as leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, and sometimes, anaemia.

Imuran Tablets (Azathioprine)

Imuran tablets contain a medicine called azathioprine. This belongs to a group of medicines called immunosuppressants.


The adverse effects of azacitidine are generally similar to those seen with cytarabine. Hypokalaemia, dyspnoea, and bruising are common.


Erlotinib is taken by mouth once a day at the same time every day, preferably in the morning. It should be taken with a large glass of water on an empty stomach, one hour before or two hours after food or other medications.


Capecitabine is a prodrug that is converted to fluorouracil in body tissues. It is given orally for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer and is also used for the adjuvant treatment of patients after surgery for Dukes C colon cancer.

Cytotoxic Agents

Chemotherapy uses anticancer or “cytotoxic” drugs to destroy cancer cells by disrupting their growth. Cytarabine is commonly used in combination with interferon-a and in chemotherapy regimens to treat blastic-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia. The cytotoxic agents hydroxyurea and busulfan were the treatments of choice until interferon-a was introduced into the chronic myelogenous leukemia market twenty years ago.

Torisel (Temsirolimus)

Torisel may also increase blood glucose levels and worsen diabetes mellitus. This may result in the need for insulin and/or oral antidiabetic agent therapy. Tell your doctor if you experience any excessive thirst or increased frequency and quantity of urination.

Alemtuzumab (Single Agent)

Early pilot studies indicated that alemtuzumab could cause tumor regression in advanced non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. However, subsequent studies showed that the therapeutic effect was confined mainly to tumor cells in the blood and bone marrow rather than in lymph nodes, a finding that paved the way for trials in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Patients who are refractory to fludarabine are left with few treatment options.

Androcur (Cyproterone Acetate)

Androcur 50mg is a medicine containing cyproterone acetate. It is an anti-androgen therapy. It blocks the actions of male sex hormones (androgens) and reduces the amount of male sex hormones produced by the body.

Tobravisc (Tobramycin)

If you suffer from liver or kidney disease. Tell your doctor if you are taking any other antibiotic medicines by mouth or by injection.

Tyverb (Lapatinib)

Tyverb is used to treat certain types of breast cancer (HER2-overexpressing) which have spread beyond the original tumour {advanced or metastatic breast cancer). It may slow or stop cancer cells from growing, or may kill them. Information about these medicines is described in separate patient information leaflets.

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Etiology

No etiologic factors have been clearly defined for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, although few studies have been performed. Most chronic lymphocytic leukemia cases occur sporadically, but approximately 1 in 20 patients has a familial form of the disease. The presence of familial cases clearly suggests that inherited genetic factors contribute to the development of the disease, although the specific abnormal genes connected to chronic lymphocytic leukemia have not yet been identified.

Maxtrex (Methotrexate)

Maxtrex Tablets contain the active ingredient methotrexate. Methotrexate is referred to as a cytotoxic medicine. It is most commonly used to kill cells in tumours.

Puri-Nethol (Mercaptopurine)

Puri-Nethol tablets contain a medicine called mercaptopurine. This belongs to a group of medicines called cytotoxics (also called chemotherapy). Puri-Nethol is used to treat leukaemia (cancer of the blood).


Practically insoluble in water; freely soluble in alcohol and in acetone. An off-white, slightly granular powder.


The main adverse effects noted after oral therapy with bexarotene include hyperlipidaemia, hypothyroidism, leucopenia, headache, oedema, altered liver function, rash, and pruritus. Exfoliative dermatitis, alopecia, and skin disorders may occur. Other common adverse effects include anaemia, insomnia, dizziness, eye or ear disorders, gastrointestinal disturbances, arthralgia, and myalgia.


Three major staging systems exist for the classification of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (These systems are described in TABLE. Common Staging Systems Used in the Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia).