(British Approved Name, US Adopted Name, rINN)
International Nonproprietary Names (INNs) in main languages (French, Latin, Russian, and Spanish):
Pharmacopoeias. In US.
The United States Pharmacopeia 31, 2008 (Capecitabine). A white to off-white crystalline powder. Sparingly soluble in water; soluble in alcohol and in acetonitrile; freely soluble in methyl alcohol. Store in airtight containers at a temperature of 20° to 25°, excursions permitted between 15° and 30°.
Adverse Effects and Precautions
As for Fluorouracil. Diarrhoea (which may be severe), nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, stomatitis, and palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (erythema and desquamation of hands and feet) occur commonly with capecitabine, and may be dose-limiting. Other common adverse effects include fatigue, asthenia, and anorexia.
Rashes, alopecia, erythema, dryness of the skin, pruritus, skin pigmentation disorders, and nail disorders can occur. Other adverse effects are fever, pain, arthralgia, constipation, dyspepsia, paraesthesia, headache, dizziness, insomnia, hypoor hypercalcaemia, and dehydration. Dermatitis, cardiotoxicity, and bone-marrow depression have all been reported. Hyperbilirubinaemia has occurred. Doses should be reduced in patients with moderate renal impairment and the drug is contra-indicated in those with severe renal or hepatic impairment.
Effects on blood lipids
Severe hypertriglyceridaemia has been reported with oral capecitabine; patients had high baseline triglyceride concentrations at the start of capecitabine. Despite the introduction of lipid-lowering therapy, triglyceride concentrations remained above baseline, and only decreased several weeks after stopping capecitabine.
Effects on the eyes
A report of severe ocular irritation with corneal deposits and impaired visual acuity in 2 patients given capecitabine. Symptoms resolved within several weeks of stopping the drug.
Effects on the heart
Acute ischaemic chest pain has been reported, usually within a few days of starting capecitabine. Symptoms from case reports and incidence in Phase III studies were similar to those in patients given fluorouracil. While symptoms have generally been reported to be reversible, fatal myocardial infarction has occurred. One patient had also had cardiotoxicity with fluorouracil treatment, but others had no apparent risk factors.
Effects on the nervous system
Peripheral neuropathy and encephalopathy have been reported in association with capecitabine use.
Effects on the skin and nails
While hand-foot syndrome appears to be common in patients treated with capecitabine (see Palmar-plantar Erythrodysesthesia Syndrome, below), other skin eruptions have been rarely reported. Onychomadesis (total separation of the nail-bed) and onycholysis have occurred. Pyogenic granuloma has been seen with the use of capecitabine, as has re-pigmentation of chemotherapy-induced vitiligo.
A patient was successfully given fluorouracil by continuous infusion despite previous hypersensitivity to capecitabine. The authors supposed that the hypersensitivity was likely to have been caused by capecitabine or intermediate metabolites, and suggested a lack of cross-sensitivity between capecitabine and fluorouracil.
Pal mar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome
Hand-foot syndrome (palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome) has been reported to be common with use of capecitabine given either as monotherapy or as part of combination chemotherapy regimens. The syndrome developed within the first 2 cycles of monotherapy, but within the first 3 cycles in combination therapy, which was attributed to dose modifications of capecitabine in the latter case. Use with docetaxel, and previous chemotherapy-induced stomatitis were found to be significant risk factors for its occurrence.
The only effective management is treatment interruption and dose modification Supportive measures to reduce pain and discomfort and prevent secondary infection are important. General recommended strategies include submersion of hands and feet in cold water, wound care, and avoidance of extreme temperature changes, tight-fitting clothing, or skin friction. Emollient creams may be of benefit for both prophylaxis and treatment. Other strategies that have been proposed include the use of amifostine, topical or systemic corticosteroids, and nicotine patches; however, use of these drugs for capecitabine-induced hand-foot syndrome remains unproven.
While pyridoxine cannot be recommended for prophylaxis, some consider it a reasonable choice for treatment, since benefit has been reported with its use with topical emollients. Concurrent treatment with celecoxib has been reported to reduce the incidence of hand-foot syndrome induced by capecitabine. For reference to the use of vitamin E to alleviate hand-foot syndrome caused by capecitabine and docetaxel, see Chemotherapy-induced Toxicity, under Uses of Vitamin E.
As a result of capecitabine-induced hand-foot syndrome, fingerprint misidentification has been reported.
Tumour lysis syndrome
A fatal case of tumour lysis syndrome has been reported after the use of capecitabine.
As for Fluorouracil. Altered coagulation parameters and bleeding have occurred in patients on warfarin or phenprocoumon given capecitabine. Increased phenytoin plasma concentrations and symptoms of toxicity during use with capecitabine have been reported. Capecitabine must not be given with sorivudine or its analogues as fatal fluoropyrimidine toxicity may occur (see also Antivirals, under Interactions of Fluorouracil).
Antacids containing aluminium or magnesium hydroxides cause a small increase in capecitabine plasma concentration. The maximum tolerated dose of capecitabine is reduced when it is given with either folinic acid or interferon alfa.
Capecitabine is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, with peak plasma concentrations occurring at about 1.5 hours. Food reduces the rate and extent of absorption. Plasma protein binding of capecitabine is less than 60%. Capecitabine is hydrolysed in the liver to 5′-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine (5′-DFCR), which is then converted to 5′-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5′-DFUR; doxifluridine) and subsequently to 5-fluorour-acil in body tissues. 5-Fluorouracil is further metabolised, as discussed on site. About 3% of a dose of capecitabine is excreted in the urine unchanged.
Uses and Administration
Capecitabine is a prodrug that is converted to fluorouracil in body tissues. It is given orally for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer and is also used for the adjuvant treatment of patients after surgery for Dukes C colon cancer. Capecitabine is given with docetaxel for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer after failure of anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. It may be given as monotherapy after failure of taxanes and anthracycline-containing regimens for patients with breast cancer and for whom further anthracycline-containing therapy is not indicated.
Capecitabine with lapatinib is used for the treatment of patients with advanced or metastatic breast cancer whose tumours overexpress human epidermal receptor type 2 (HER2). Capecitabine is also used with a platinum-based regimen for the first-line treatment of gastric cancer.
For monotherapy in colon, colorectal, or in breast cancer, the recommended initial oral dose is 1.25 g/m given twice daily; doses are given for 14 days, followed by a 7-day rest period. Adjuvant treatment for colon cancer is recommended for a total of 6 months. For combination therapy in breast cancer, when given with docetaxel, capecitabine is given in the same dose as listed above; docetaxel is given at 75 mg/m as a 1-hour intravenous infusion every 3 weeks. However, when used with lapatinib tosilate, a different regimen is used, see Uses and Administration, under Lapatinib Tosilate.
In combination therapy in colorectal or gastric cancer, the recommended initial oral dose of capecitabine is 0.8 to 1 g/m twice daily for 14 days, followed by a 7-day rest period. Alternatively, capecitabine 625 mg/m twice daily is given continuously. Capecitabine tablets should be swallowed with water within 30 minutes after a meal. Doses should be modified in subsequent cycles according to toxicity. Capecitabine doses should be reduced in patients with renal impairment (see below). Capecitabine is also under investigation in the treatment of other malignancies.
Administration in renal impairment
Renal impairment increases systemic exposure to 5′-deoxy-5-fluorouridine, a metabolite of capecitabine. An increase in the severity of adverse effects appears to correlate with decreased renal function and increased exposure to this metabolite.
Licensed product information suggests the following dosage adjustments based on creatinine clearance (CC):
- mild renal impairment, CC 51 to 80 mL/minute: no dosage adjustment necessary
- moderate renal impairment, CC 30 to 50 mL/minute: when the starting dose is 1.25 g/m twice daily, a dose reduction of 25%, to about 950 mg/m twice daily is recommended; however, when the starting dose is 1 g/m twice daily, no dose reduction is required
- severe renal impairment, CC below 30 mL/minute: capecitabine is contra-indicated
The United States Pharmacopeia 31, 2008: Capecitabine Tablets.
Argentina: Apecitab ; Categor; Xeloda;
Czech Republic: Xeloda;
Hong Kong; Xeloda;
New Zealand: Xeloda;
South Africa: Xeloda;
United Kingdom (UK): Xeloda;
United States of America (US and USA): Xeloda;