(British Approved Name)
Description. Hyoscyamine is an alkaloid obtained from various solanaceous plants. It is the laevo-isomer of atropine into which it can be converted by heating or by the action of alkali.
Pharmacopoeias. In US.
The United States Pharmacopeia 31, 2008 (Hyoscyamine). A white crystalline powder. M.p. 106° to 109°. Slightly soluble in water and in benzene freely soluble in alcohol, in chloroform, and in dilute acids sparingly soluble in ether. Its solutions are alkaline to litmus. Store in airtight containers. Protect from light.
Pharmacopoeias. In US.
The United States Pharmacopeia 31, 2008 (Hyoscyamine Hydrobromide). White, odourless, crystals or crystalline powder. M.p. not less than 149°. Freely soluble in water soluble 1 in 2.5 of alcohol, 1 in 1.7 of chloroform, and 1 in 2300 of ether. pH of a 5% solution in water is about 5.4. Store in airtight containers. Protect from light.
Pharmacopoeias. In Europe and US.
European Pharmacopoeia, 6th ed. (Hyoscyamine Sulphate). A white or almost white, crystalline powder or colourless needles. Very soluble in water sparingly soluble or soluble in alcohol. A 2% solution in water has a pH of 4.5 to 6.2. Store in airtight containers. Protect from light.
The United States Pharmacopeia 31, 2008 (Hyoscyamine Sulfate). A white or almost white, crystalline powder or colourless needles. It is deliquescent and affected by light. Soluble 1 in 0.5 of water and 1 in 5 of alcohol practically insoluble in ether. pH of a 1% solution in water is about 5.3.
Adverse Effects, Treatment, and Precautions
As for Atropine Sulfate.
As for antimuscarinics in general (see Atropine Sulfate).
Uses and Administration
Hyoscyamine is a tertiary amine antimuscarinic with the actions of atropine (which is racemic hyoscyamine) hyoscyamine, the laevo-isomer, has about twice the potency of atropine since the dextro-isomer has only very weak antimuscarinic activity. Hyoscyamine is used mainly in the relief of conditions associated with visceral spasm. It has also been given for rhinitis and was formerly used in the treatment of par-kinsonism.
Hyoscyamine is given in usual doses of 150 to 300 micrograms up to four times daily by mouth, but it is more usually employed as the sulfate the hydrobromide is also used. Suggested doses of hyoscyamine sulfate are 125 to 250 micrograms orally or sublingual-ly every four hours as needed, up to a maximum of 1.5 mg in 24 hours. Modified-release oral preparations of hyoscyamine sulfate are available in some countries dosage is specific to a particular formulation. Hyoscyamine sulfate has also been given by injection.
The United States Pharmacopeia 31, 2008: Hyoscyamine Sulfate Elixir; Hyoscyamine Sulfate Injection; Hyoscyamine Sulfate Oral Solution; Hyoscyamine Sulfate Tablets; Hyoscyamine Tablet
Hong Kong: Levsin
USA: A-Spasf Anaspaz Cystospaz Donnamar ED-SPAZ Gastrosed IB-Stat Levbid Levsin Levsinex Mar-Spas Neosol NuLev Symax
Australia: Donnagel Donnalix Donnatab
Brazil: Analverin Neogrein Ormigrein Tropinal
Czech Republic: Solutan
Indonesia: Aludonna Feminax
Italy: Antispasmina Colica
South Africa: Donnatal Millerspas
USA: Accuhist LA; Alkabel; Antispasmodic Elixir; Arco-Lase Plus¤; Atrohist Plus¤; Atrosept; Barbidonna¤; Bellacane; Bellahist-D; Bellatal; Deconhist LA¤; Dolsed; Donna-Sed¤; Donnagel-PG¤; Donnamor¤; Donnapine¤; Donnatal; Hyosophen; Kinesed¤; Levsin with Phenobarbitone¤; Malatal¤; MHP-A; MSP-Blu; Phenahist-TR¤; Phenazopyridine Plus; Phenchlor SHA¤; Prosed/DS; Pyridium Plus; Relaxadon¤; Ru-Tuss¤; Spasmophen¤; Spasquid¤; Stahist; Susano; Trac Tabs 2X¤; Trellium Plus; UAA; Urelief Plus; Urelle; Uretron; Uridon Modified; Urimar-T; Urimax; Urised; Urisedamine¤; Uriseptic; UriSym; Uritact; Uro Blue; Urogesic Blue; Utira