Author: Jennifer Bowles

Jennifer is a clinical pharmacologist. She helps doctors of all medical specialties choose medications. Jennifer consults about drug dosage, interactions, and side effects.


The adverse effects of azacitidine are generally similar to those seen with cytarabine. Hypokalaemia, dyspnoea, and bruising are common.

Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor Antagonists.Chloride-Channel Activators

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a peptide that functions as a neurotransmitter in the brain. It plays a critical role in coordinating the body’s overall response to stress, and it interacts with two known receptor subtypes, CRF1 and CRF2.

Palonosetron Hydrochloride

The stability of palonosetron hydrochloride at concentrations of 5 and 30 micrograms/mL was assessed in polyvinyl chloride bags of the following 4 infusion solutions: glucose 5%, sodium chloride 0.9%, glucose 5% in sodium chloride 0.45%, and glucose 5% in lactated Ringer’s solution. All solutions were considered to be physically and chemically stable for at least 48 hours at room temperature exposed to light, and for 14 days under refrigeration. As for Ondansetron, although no dosage reduction is considered necessary in hepatic impairment.

Keral (Dexketoprofen Trometamol)

Keral is a pain killer from the group of medicines called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It is used to treat mild to moderate pain, such as muscular pain, painful periods (dysmenorrhoea), toothache. If you have heart problems, previous stroke or think that you might be at risk of these conditions (for example if you have high blood pressure, diabetes or high cholesterol or are a smoker) you should discuss your treatment with your doctor or pharmacist; medicines such as Keral may be associated with a small increased risk of heart attack (“myocardial infarction”) or stroke.

Imodium Instant Melts (Loperamide)

Imodium Instant Melts is a medicine which is used to treat sudden short-lived (acute) attacks of diarrhoea in adults and children aged 12 years and over. It can also be used to treat diarrhoea associated with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in adults aged 18 years and over after your doctor has diagnosed you are suffering from this condition.

Therapeutics/Acute Pancreatitis and Peripancreatic Fluid Collections

A 44-year-old woman presented with severe epigastric pain requiring administration of narcotic agents. Abdominal ultrasound revealed multiple small gall stones.

Eletriptan Hydrobromide

Eletriptan should not be used in patients with severe hepatic or severe renal impairment. Blood pressure effects of eletriptan are increased in renal impairment and therefore the dose should be reduced in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. No dosage adjustment is needed in mild or moderate hepatic impairment.

Recognizing Depression in the Home Care Patient

Depression is a widespread disease in our society today. Epidemiologists believe that between 8% and 19% of the general population suffers from the disorder.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): Clinical Presentation

The initial presentation of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) occurs between the ages of 30 and 50 in over one-half of patients diagnosed with the condition. The classic symptoms reported include abdominal pain, constipation, and/or diarrhea.

Senior Care Part 1

Behavioral disturbances in the elderly are probably the most important facet of dementia prompting institutionalization. The referral for pharmacologic intervention is often the result of the need for management of mood and behavior. Symptoms tend to be superficially described as “agitated,” “combative,” “depressed,” “acting out,” “inappropriately accusing,” etc., by spouses, family members, and caregivers.

Therapeutics/Functional Abdominal Bloating and Gas

A 37-year-old female frequently complains of excess gas in the gut. A detailed history reveals that her complaints refer to abdominal bloating and fullness. When specifically questioned, she admits straining at stools and sensation of difficult gas evacuation, without excessive flatulence or belching.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): Other Agents

Leuprolide acetate, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue, has been investigated as a treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) because of the predominance of IBS in women and the exacerbation of symptoms reported during menses. Symptoms of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, and early satiety were improved with the administration of the drug.

Mouth ulcers in practice

Anthony Jarvis, a man in his early fifties, asks you to recommend something for painful mouth ulcers. On questioning, he tells you that he has two ulcers at the moment and has occasionally suffered from the problem over many years. Usually he gets one or two ulcers inside the cheek or lips and they last for about 1 week.

Roxatidine Acetate Hydrochloride

The stability of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride in parenteral nutrition solutions was influenced by storage temperature and amino acid content and composition. Unlike cimetidine roxatidine does not appear to affect cytochrome P450, and therefore is considered to have little effect on the metabolism of other drugs. However, like other H2-antagonists its effects on gastric pH may alter the absorption of some other drugs.

Locilex – Antibiotic Cream for Diabetic Ulcers

Among the most common and severe complications of diabetes mellitus is the development of topical skin ulcers. These often occur at pressure points and at the extremities, and infected diabetic foot ulcers often result in limb loss.

Constipation and Fecal Impaction

Constipation, like diarrhea, is difficult to define with precision due to the wide variation in normal bowel habits. However, because 95% of people have at least three bowel movements per week, for practical purposes constipation can be defined as a condition in which fewer than three stools per week are passed. In addition to infrequent stools, constipation usually carries a connotation of difficulty in passing the stool.


Erlotinib is taken by mouth once a day at the same time every day, preferably in the morning. It should be taken with a large glass of water on an empty stomach, one hour before or two hours after food or other medications.

Specific Absorptive Defects

Primary lactase deficiency is an example of a defect in a specific brush border enzyme, lactase, which causes the malabsorption of the disaccharide lactose.

Drug Keppra: Adjunctive Therapy for Epilepsy

More than 2 million people in the US have some form of epilepsy. Seventy percent of them are adults.


Capecitabine is a prodrug that is converted to fluorouracil in body tissues. It is given orally for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer and is also used for the adjuvant treatment of patients after surgery for Dukes C colon cancer.