Author: Jennifer Bowles

Jennifer is a clinical pharmacologist. She helps doctors of all medical specialties choose medications. Jennifer consults about drug dosage, interactions, and side effects.

Fragmin Prevents Deep-Vein Thrombosis After Surgery

Fragmin (dalteparin) is a low-molecular-weight heparin marketed by Pharmacia & Upjohn. It has proven to be beneficial in preventing thromboembolic complications in patients undergoing abdominal surgery or hip replacement surgery when administered once before surgery and for a week after the procedure.

Strefen Honey & Lemon (Flurbiprofen)

These lozenges help the symptoms of sore throats, such as throat soreness, pain and swelling. You should get some relief from pain and soreness within half an hour of sucking a lozenge.

Sustiva – Drug for HIV Treatment

Although several different types of drugs are used by patients with AIDS to treat their human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (usually in combination), until recently no drug has received full approval from the FDA based on long-term results. In February 2000, Sustiva (efavirenz), manufactured by DuPont Pharmaceuticals, became the first anti-HIV drug to receive full FDA approval based on long-term data supporting its effectiveness in fighting HIV infection.

Ranitidine Bismuth Citrate

Ranitidine bismuth citrate would be expected to combine the adverse effects of both bismuth compounds and ranitidine. Blackening of the tongue and faeces is common, and gastrointestinal disturbances, headache, mild anaemia, and altered liver enzyme values have been reported.

AndroGel for Low Testosterone

Brand Name: AndroGel Active Ingredient: testosterone Indication: Topical testosterone replacement for men with low testosterone Company Name: Unimed Pharmaceuticals, Inc. An estimated 4 to 5 million men experience the effects of low testosterone – also known as hypogonadism – including a diminished interest in sex, impotence, reduced lean body mass, decreased bone density, and low mood and energy levels.

Drug therapy of Peptic Ulcer Disease

Prostaglandin analogs, (e.g., misoprostol (Cytotec)) have been used to treat peptic conditions in clinical trials and appear to be as effective as H2 antagonists in healing ulcers when administered in doses that inhibit acid secretion. However, there is little evidence that synthetic prostaglandins are clinically effective when given in the lower, purely cytoprotective doses that have no effect on acid secretion. Whether the synthetic prostaglandins offer any practical advantages over current therapy is debatable, although one analog that is commercially available, misoprostol, appears to be useful in the prevention and treatment of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-induced gastric ulcers or erosions.


Nabilone may produce adverse effects similar to those of cannabis. The most common adverse effects are drowsiness, vertigo, and dry mouth.


Before each treatment with Docetaxel, you will have blood tests to check that you have enough blood cells and sufficient liver function to receive Docetaxel. This medicinal product contains alcohol and may be harmful for those suffering from alcoholism and should be taken into account in high-risk groups such as patients with liver disease or epilepsy. In case any of the above conditions apply to you, discuss it with your doctor before the medicinal product is given to you.

Rabeprazole Sodium

Effects on the endocrine system. For cases of gynaecomastia associated with rabeprazole.

Scientists Discover New Aspects of Antidepressants

Antidepressants, such as Paxil, Prozac, and Zoloft, are referred to as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) because researchers think they work by keeping more of the brain chemical serotonin active. But scientists at the University of California San Francisco think they’ve found evidence that these antidepressants work in more than one way to help regulate moods.

Psychotherapy Alone May Help Some Depression Patients

A recent study concludes that cognitive psychotherapy can be just as effective for the treatment of atypical major depression as standard drug therapy with phenelzine sulfate. Researchers at the University of Texas-Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas randomized 108 patients suffering from atypical major depression to treat with the MAO inhibitor phenelzine sulfate, cognitive therapy, or placebo for 10 weeks to collect data.

Propantheline Bromide

Propantheline bromide is a medication classified as an antimuscarinic agent or anticholinergic. It works by blocking the effects of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that plays a role in various bodily functions. Propantheline is used to treat gastrointestinal conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other gastrointestinal motility disorders.


Dihydroergotamine (DHE) is a medication used to treat migraines and cluster headaches. It belongs to a class of drugs called ergot alkaloids, which have vasoconstrictive properties. DHE works by narrowing the blood vessels in the brain, which can help alleviate the throbbing pain associated with migraines.

Drug Welchol for Hypercholesterolemia

Brand Name Drug: Welchol Active Ingredient Drug: colesevelam hydrochloride Indication: For the reduction of elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia, as an adjunct to diet and exercise Company Name: GelTex Pharmaceuticals, Inc. An estimated 52 million people in the US have at least mild hypercholesterolemia and would benefit from lipid-lowering therapy.


Antispasmodics are drugs used for their relaxant action on smooth muscle, either direct or through an antimuscarinic action on the parasympathetic innervation. They play a role in the management of gastrointestinal spasm and irritable bowel syndrome (below) as well as other disorders associated with smooth muscle spasm. Those described in this site are mainly antimuscarinics drugs in other sites that may be used for relaxation of smooth muscle include calcium-channel blockers and nitrates, as well as tings with less well defined mechanisms of action such as papaverine.

Treatment of IBS. 5-HT3 Antagonists and 5-HT4 Agonists

According to Birrer, 96% of serotonin is concentrated in the gastrointestinal tract. As a major neurotransmitter, it exerts an effect on gut smooth muscle in response to central and physical stimuli primarily via the 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors, affecting contractility and relaxation. Serotonin receptor antagonists may ameliorate the abnormal stool frequency and consistency in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) by blocking stimulation of the peripheral and visceral sensory pathways or by reducing the gut’s response to nociceptive stimuli.