Cardiology (from Greek by. Kardia – heart and Greek. Logos – word study) is a section of medical science that studies the structure, functions, and the diseases of heart and circulatory system, as well as their causes, pathogenesis, symptoms, and diagnosis. In addition, cardiology considers methods of prevention and treatment, issues of medical rehabilitation of patients with lesions of the cardiovascular system.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of disability and premature death of residents of economically developed countries. Today, the share in the structure of CVD mortality is 40 to 60% of the total mortality. In this ongoing increase of the incidence and defeat amongst the people of a younger age makes heart disease the most important medical and social health problem.
Cardiovascular diseases are a group of pathologic conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels and impair their function, for example:
Coronary heart disease (including heart attack):
- Heart failure
- Disturbances of cardiac rhythm or arrhythmia
- Heart defects, including congenital
- Diseases of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy)
- Diseases of the pericardium
- Diseases of the aorta and Marfan syndrome
- Vascular disease (disease of blood vessels)
Heart attacks and strokes are usually acute and occur mainly as a result of a blockage that prevents blood flow to the heart or brain.
The most common reversible risk factors for cardio-vascular diseases are smoking, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, lipoprotein, and other factors, caused by improper nutrition and menopausal status.
Irreversible risk factors include genetic predisposition, gender, and age. Many of these factors may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, which leads eventually to heart disease.
Cardiovascular diseases are serious problem for our society. Early diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease is just as important as the elimination of the risk factors for their development.
Drug prevention and treatment of circulatory disorders
One of the main functions of the circulatory system is to ensure the supply of organs and tissues – therefore, any violation of its activities affect the activities of all organs and systems. Formations of blood clots in the vascular system that can cause blockage of blood vessels are called thrombosis. Thromboses are serious threat to health. A blood clot (thrombus) is able to break away from the wall of a blood vessel, and the blood flow can get it to the heart or lungs. This will lead to the development of pulmonary embolism, which can be fatal.
Treatment of diseases of the heart – an area in need of innovative therapies.
Heart failure, angina, or atrial fibrillation – today successful treatment of these most common manifestations of coronary heart disease is not possible. In addition to targeted effects on the causes of the disease, treatment can be accompanied by the use of medicines. However, such therapy often leads to the development of unwanted side effects such as arrhythmias or significant decrease in blood pressure.