Diagnosis and Therapy
A 50-year-old salesman was admitted to the hospital with acute appendicitis. He underwent an uncomplicated appendectomy.
Alcohol is oxidized in the liver, stomach, and other organs to acetaldehyde by the cytosolic enzyme ADH and the hepatic microso-mal enzymes. Acetaldehyde is oxidized to acetate by mitochondrial hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase. Liver cirrhosis is an effect of chronic alcohol use.
The efferent nerves of the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system release the neurotransmitter ACh at both preganglionic and postganglionic (i.e., “cholinergic”) nerve endings, and also at somatic nerve endings. Nitric oxide is a cotransmitter at many of the parasympathetic postganglionic sites. Nicotinic cholinoreceptors are localized at all postganglionic neurons (the autonomic ganglia), including the adrenal medulla, and skeletal muscle endplates innervated by somatic nerves.
A 61-year-old man is noted to have increased intraocular pressure on a routine eye examination. The visual acuity is normal in both eyes.
She inadvertently applies excessive pilocarpine to her eyes. This may result in which of the following?
There has been recent public concern over reports that increasing numbers of very young children are being prescribed psychotropic medications. Some parents are criticized for giving their children these medications while others are criticized for not doing so. New studies are needed to tell us what the best treatments are for children with emotional and behavioral disturbances.
A recent study concludes that cognitive psychotherapy can be just as effective for the treatment of atypical major depression as standard drug therapy with phenelzine sulfate. Researchers at the University of Texas-Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas randomized 108 patients suffering from atypical major depression to treat with the MAO inhibitor phenelzine sulfate, cognitive therapy, or placebo for 10 weeks to collect data.