Eletriptan should not be used in patients with severe hepatic or severe renal impairment. Blood pressure effects of eletriptan are increased in renal impairment and therefore the dose should be reduced in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. No dosage adjustment is needed in mild or moderate hepatic impairment.
Depression is a widespread disease in our society today. Epidemiologists believe that between 8% and 19% of the general population suffers from the disorder.
The initial presentation of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) occurs between the ages of 30 and 50 in over one-half of patients diagnosed with the condition. The classic symptoms reported include abdominal pain, constipation, and/or diarrhea.
Behavioral disturbances in the elderly are probably the most important facet of dementia prompting institutionalization. The referral for pharmacologic intervention is often the result of the need for management of mood and behavior. Symptoms tend to be superficially described as “agitated,” “combative,” “depressed,” “acting out,” “inappropriately accusing,” etc., by spouses, family members, and caregivers.
A 37-year-old female frequently complains of excess gas in the gut. A detailed history reveals that her complaints refer to abdominal bloating and fullness. When specifically questioned, she admits straining at stools and sensation of difficult gas evacuation, without excessive flatulence or belching.
Leuprolide acetate, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue, has been investigated as a treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) because of the predominance of IBS in women and the exacerbation of symptoms reported during menses. Symptoms of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, and early satiety were improved with the administration of the drug.
Anthony Jarvis, a man in his early fifties, asks you to recommend something for painful mouth ulcers. On questioning, he tells you that he has two ulcers at the moment and has occasionally suffered from the problem over many years. Usually he gets one or two ulcers inside the cheek or lips and they last for about 1 week.
Constipation, like diarrhea, is difficult to define with precision due to the wide variation in normal bowel habits. However, because 95% of people have at least three bowel movements per week, for practical purposes constipation can be defined as a condition in which fewer than three stools per week are passed. In addition to infrequent stools, constipation usually carries a connotation of difficulty in passing the stool.
Primary lactase deficiency is an example of a defect in a specific brush border enzyme, lactase, which causes the malabsorption of the disaccharide lactose.
Antisecretory drugs are used in the treatment and prophylaxis of peptic ulcer disease (below) some are also employed in other disorders associated with gastric hyperacidity such as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and dyspepsia (below). Histamine H2-receptor antagonists (H2-antagonists), which act by blocking histamine H2-receptors on gastric parietal cells, thereby antagonising the normal stimulatory effect of endogenous histamine on gastric acid production. Those described in mis site include cimeti-dine, famotidine, nizatidine, and ranitidine.
Slightly soluble in water and in methyl alcohol; practically insoluble in chloroform and in ether. A 0.2% solution in water has a pH of 3.7 to 4.7. Store at a temperature of 2° to 8°.
The investigation of novel compounds for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome remains a challenging area of R&D for both the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. The problem stems from the lack of understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of this common functional gastrointestinal (gastrointestinal) disorder. Because the majority of current therapies for irritable bowel syndrome address abnormal motility more effectively than they do pain, most irritable bowel syndrome drug development in recent years has focused on therapies for visceral hypersensitivity.
Ascites refers to the accumulation of excessive volumes of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. Cirrhosis is the most common cause of ascites. The other main causes are infection (acute and chronic, including tuberculosis), malignancy, pancreatitis, heart failure, hepatic venous obstruction, nephrotic syndrome, and myxedema.
The gastrointestinal effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs range from dyspepsia to gastric ulceration, hemorrhage, and perforation. Minor symptoms of gastrointestinal discomfort are reported in 10% to 40% of patients using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Omeprazole (Prilosec) and clarithromycin (Biaxin). The eradication rate with this regimen was 78 percent in U. Compliance has generally been good, and the regimen is generally well tolerated.
A new prescription eyedrop is available for millions of Americans who suffer from itchy eyes during hayfever season – Optivar. It has a rapid onset (within 3 minutes) and a duration of effect of approximately 8 hours to prevent itching.
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) involves damage (ulcers) to the lining of different parts of the digestive system. The most common types of PUD are gastric ulcers (GU) and duodenal ulcers (DU). About 10% of people will develop a peptic ulcer.
Chemotherapy uses anticancer or “cytotoxic” drugs to destroy cancer cells by disrupting their growth. Cytarabine is commonly used in combination with interferon-a and in chemotherapy regimens to treat blastic-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia. The cytotoxic agents hydroxyurea and busulfan were the treatments of choice until interferon-a was introduced into the chronic myelogenous leukemia market twenty years ago.
Morphine, the prototype opioid, is derived from opium, a crude material obtained from the seed pod of the opium poppy plant. The chemical structure of morphine is shown in Figure Structure-activity relationships of opioids. Many other derivatives of the opium plant (opiates) and other drugs with similar effects (opioids) have been discovered or synthesized.
Priapism is a very uncommon adverse event; however, due to its serious consequences of corporal scarring and possible irreversible damage, the patient is instructed to seek immediate medical attention for a painful erection lasting longer than 4 hours. Pharmacologic reversal of a prolonged erection less than 24 hours duration may be accomplished with phenylephrine solution, a vasoconstricting agent. An intermittent injection of 200 mcg/mL phenylephrine is administered to the side of the shaft of the penis every 10 minutes or until the erection has subsided (maximum of 10 injections).