Author: Jennifer Bowles

Jennifer is a clinical pharmacologist. She helps doctors of all medical specialties choose medications. Jennifer consults about drug dosage, interactions, and side effects.

Finasteride (Propecia)

Finasteride is used to treat androgenic alopecia. Finasteride – instructions for use, doses, side effects. Benefits of using Finasteride and the effectiveness of the drug.

Stromectol: the invention, uses, and dosages

Stromectol (Ivermectin) has entered human history as a means of salvation from diseases caused by parasites. Stromectol is used to treat the negative effects caused by parasites that have penetrated in animals or humans.

Uses of Gabapentin (Neurontin)

Gabapentin is most often used to treat epilepsy and painful conditions; however, there are many other uses of this drug as well. It comes as tablets, capsules, and liquids. The substance can also be given to cats and dogs.

Drug Axert for Migraine

During a migraine headache attack, changes in brain activity induce inflammation of blood vessels and nerves in the head. Attacks may be triggered by alcohol, certain foods, too much or too little sleep, menstruation, emotional stress, or environmental factors.

Tests of Cholestasis

Alkaline phosphatases are enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis of organic phosphate esters at an alkaline pH. These enzymes are found in many tissues. The serum enzyme is principally derived from three sources: (a) the hepatobiliary system: the bile canalicular surface of the hepatocytes and biliary epithelium, (b) bone: the osteoblasts, and (c) the intestinal tract: the brush border of the intestinal mucosal cells (10% of the total serum enzyme).


Practically insoluble in water soluble in dichloromethane freely soluble in dimethylformamide sparingly soluble in methyl alcohol. Slightly soluble in water and in methyl alcohol very slightly soluble in alcohol freely soluble in dimethylformamide.


A white to slightly yellowish-white, crystalline powder. Practically insoluble in water freely soluble in alcohol dissolves in dilute alkaline solutions. A white to creamy white, odourless, crystalline powder.

Concerta: Drug for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

For several years the drug Ritalin (methylphenidate) has benefited children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is estimated to afflict some 3-5% of American school-age children. But the drug needs to be taken 2-3 times a day, often necessitating a trip by the child to the nurse’s office at lunchtime to take the midday dose. Now a new formulation of methylphenidate has been approved by the FDA which only requires once-daily dosing.

Motion sickness and its prevention

Motion sickness is thought to be caused by a conflict of messages to the brain, where the vomiting centre receives information from the eyes, the Gastrointestinal tract and the vestibular system in the ear. Symptoms of motion sickness include nausea and sometimes vomiting, pallor and cold sweats. Parents commonly seek advice about how to prevent motion sickness in children, in whom the problem is most common.

Complications of Gastroesophageal Disease

Esophageal stricture of the esophagus is believed to be the result of fibrosis, when inflammation and damage extend below the mucous membrane due to chronic gastroesophageal reflux. It seems that 11% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease develop strictures. Factors predisposing to the formation of stricture include prolonged gastroesophageal reflux, supine reflux, nasogastric intubation, duodenal ulcer, hypersecretory stomach conditions, conditions after gastrectomy, scleroderma, and treated achalasia.

Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride

The following terms have been used as ‘street names’ or slang names for various forms of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride: Cyclo; Cyclone. A white to off-white, odourless, crystalline powder. Freely soluble in water, in alcohol, and in methyl alcohol; sparingly soluble in isopropyl alcohol; slightly soluble in chloroform and in dichloromethane; insoluble in hydrocarbons.


Very slightly soluble in water; freely soluble in dehydrated alcohol; very soluble in dichloromethane. It melts at about 31° with decomposition.

Hepatitis D

The hepatitis D virus was discovered in Italy by Mario Rizzetto in 1977 during an investigation of the distribution of the Hepatitis B virus antigens in liver biopsy specimens of patients chronically infected with Hepatitis B virus. He described a new antigen in the nuclei of infected hepatocytes that was obligatorily associated with hepatitis B surface antigen. This new antigen was named delta.

Sarafem: The Drug Approved for PMS

For the 3-5% of menstruating women in the US who suffer from premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD, more commonly known as PMS), the FDA has officially approved the first drug that may help them: Sarafem (fluoxetine). Manufactured by Eli Lilly and Company, fluoxetine has been marketed under the trade name Prozac for the treatment of depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and bulimia.

Case: Agents for upper GI disorders. Questions – Answers

The most common adverse effect of omeprazole is headache. Diarrhea, not constipation, is another common adverse effect.

Dysphagia: Definition

Patients with this disorder have problems with the initial stages of swallowing. They may have difficulty delivering food to the larynx. If the food passes normally to the larynxopharynx, the presence of pain, intra- or extraluminal mass lesion, or neuromuscular disorder may interfere with the ordered sequence of pharyngeal contraction, closure of the epiglottis, relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter and the occurrence of peristalsis, contraction of the striated muscle of the upper esophagus.

Tamoxifen: Breast Cancer

Whether to take tamoxifen and undergo chemotherapy is among the decisions made by women with breast cancer. The benefits of these treatments outweigh the risks – in particular, the possibility of a stroke? This study compared the use of tamoxifen and chemotherapy in 179 women who had a stroke after they were diagnosed with breast cancer and in 353 survivors of breast cancer of the same age who did not have a stroke.

Tizanidine Hydrochloride

Tizanidine hydrochloride may cause drowsiness; patients affected should not drive or operate machinery. Other adverse effects include dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness or vertigo, muscle pain and weakness, insomnia, anxiety, headache, bradycardia, nausea, and gastrointestinal disturbances.

Chorionic Gonadotrophin

A dry preparation of placental glycoproteins extracted from the urine of pregnant women. The potency is not less than 2500 units/mg. A white to yellowish-white, amorphous powder.

Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa

Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are eating disorders that are distinct but related syndromes that have in common an intense preoccupation with food. Patients with anorexia nervosa are characterized by a fear of becoming obese, disturbance in body image, anorexia, extreme weight loss, and amenorrhea. On the other hand, bulimia is characterized by periods of binge eating, alternating with fasting; self-induced vomiting; and the use of diuretics and cathartics.