Tests of Cholestasis

Enzymes Serum alkaline phosphatase. Alkaline phosphatases are enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis of organic phosphate esters at an alkaline pH. These enzymes are found in many tissues. The serum enzyme is principally derived from three sources: (a) the hepatobiliary…

Motion sickness and its prevention

Motion sickness is thought to be caused by a conflict of messages to the brain, where the vomiting centre receives information from the eyes, the Gastrointestinal tract and the vestibular system in the ear. Symptoms of motion sickness…

Complications of Gastroesophageal Disease

  Esophageal stricture of the esophagus is believed to be the result of fibrosis, when inflammation and damage extend below the mucous membrane due to chronic gastroesophageal reflux. It seems that 11% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease…

Hepatitis D

Hepatitis D (the delta agent). The hepatitis D virus was discovered in Italy by Mario Rizzetto in 1977 during an investigation of the distribution of the Hepatitis B virus antigens in liver biopsy specimens of patients chronically infected…

Case: Agents for upper GI disorders. Questions – Answers

Questions [1] Which of the following is the most common adverse effect of omeprazole? A. Black stools B. Constipation C. Headache D. Vomiting [2] Ranitidine inhibits which of the following? A. Gastrin binding to parietal cells B. Histamine…

Dysphagia: Definition

Dysphagia – difficulty swallowing. Clinically, this includes the inability to initiate swallowing and / or the sensation that swallowed solids or liquids adhere to the esophagus. Odinophagy refers to pain with swallowing. In some disorders, dysphagia may be…

Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa

Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are eating disorders that are distinct but related syndromes that have in common an intense preoccupation with food. Patients with anorexia nervosa are characterized by a fear of becoming obese, disturbance in body…

Current Management

The management of patients with a chronic multisystem infection is more complex. Once a diagnosis of intestinal Whipples disease is reached, it is important to evaluate other commonly involved organ systems. After staging is completed, the choice and…

Antiarrhythmic drugs

A 62-year-old man is being managed in the intensive care unit following a large anterior wall MI. He has been appropriately managed with oxygen, aspirin, nitrates, and P-adrenergic receptor blockers but has developed recurrent episodes of ventricular tachycardia….

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Epidemiology

Newer pharmacologic agents that mediate neurotransmitter activity may prove useful in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms of lower abdominal pain with disturbed defecation and bloating….